Sunday, February 22, 2009
Vaccination requirements - goat kids
The only universally recommended vaccination for goat kids is CD+T. Clostridium perfringins types C and D and tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani. Does should be vaccinated 2 to 4 weeks prior to parturition in order to pass immunity onto their offspring through colostrum. Females giving birth for the first time should be vaccinated twice in late pregnancy, about four weeks apart. Antibodies received from the colostrum will protect kids for about two months, if offspring have ingested adequate colostrum. If kids do not get a good amount of colostrum (drink from mother only once or not at all) they should be given same vaccination schedule as below for kids with unvaccinated mothers. Kids should receive their first CD-T vaccination when they are 6 to 8 weeks old, followed by a booster 2 to 4 weeks later (some resources say that a second booster (three total shots) should be given 4 weeks later).
Kids whose dams were not vaccinated for C and D can be vaccinated with some success at two to three days of age and again in two weeks. However, later vaccinations will be more successful since colostral antibodies interfere with vaccinations at very young ages. A better alternative may be to vaccinate offspring from non-vaccinated dams at 1 to 3 weeks, with a booster 3 to 4 weeks later. Anti-toxins can be kept on hand for immediate short-term immunity if dams were not vaccinated or in the event of disease outbreak or vaccine failure. Kids whose dams were not vaccinated for tetanus should be given the tetanus anti-toxin at the time of docking, castrating, and disbudding, especially if elastrator bands are used. Rams, bucks, and does should be boostered annually with CD-T. Does should always have their vaccinations 4-6 weeks prior to kidding. Three way vaccines (just CD+T) are recommended over eight way (contains blackleg and other diseases) since they may cause more of an immune response and bad reactions and it is unlikely that the goats will be infected with the other diseases to which the vaccine provides immunity.
Vaccine instructions should always be followed and I do not recommend giving IM vaccines SQ or vice versa, several people believe that there are no adverse reactions to doing this and do practice this way. I believe that there are reasons behind the methods of injection and they should be given according to the instructions to prevent any adverse reactions.
Other recommended shots:
Bo-se: 1/4 cc to all newborn kids, recommended if your area is selenium deficient. See image map provided.
Other vaccinations available:
Pneumonia - Pasteurella Multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica: Vaccination currently on market causes temporary limping in goats. Vaccinate adults with two doses 4 weeks apart. Kids vaccinated at under three months of age should be revaccinated at 4-6 months.
Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) : Some goat producers use sheep vaccine containing this bacterin to vaccinate goats. It has been known to cause adverse reactions however and is not recommended by the FDA for goat use.
Chlamydia and Campylobacter Antigen - Recommended for areas where disease is common in goats. If needed vaccinate does one month prior to breeding. Used "off label" for goats and appears somewhat affective. Side effects include: Muscle soreness and stiffness, can cause abortion if vaccinated during first 28-45 days of pregnancy.
Leptospirosis Bacterin: Recommended for areas where the disease is common in goats.Vaccinate one month prior to breeding
Sore mouth (Contagious Ecthyma): not recommended unless herd already has soremouth present. Live vaccine will give animals soremouth at time of herd owners choosing. Caution should be used when giving this vaccine. Do not use in newborn kids or sick goats.
Foot rot: Recommended only in wet/swampy areas and in conjunction to other preventative measures to avoid footrot. Can be used with culling, foot trimming, foot soaking etc. to REDUCE the incidence of foot rot, does not prevent
Rabies: Risk is minimal to sheep and goats but vaccine could be recommended in areas with a high potential for spread of disease such as wooded areas that contain lots of racoons, skunks, foxes, or other carriers. No rabies vaccine is currently licensed for goats.
Chart for kid treatments, including wormings